Ancient Egyptians

Ancient wigAncient Egyptians wore wigs just like Assyrians, Phoenicians, Greeks, and Romans.
These facts can be verified through universally accepted historical documentation and archeological remains.
However, the best documented civilization is the Egyptian one.

In ancient Egypt (c. 4000 to 300 BC), men and women used to shave their heads completely, replacing their natural hair with wigs.
Egyptian women did not walk around showing their bald heads, they always wore wigs.
Page-boy like hairstyles in block form together with small braids were the look of this era.
Head shaving had a number of benefits: first, removing hair made it much more comfortable in the hot Egyptian climate; second, it was easy to maintain a high degree of cleanliness avoiding danger of lice infestation.
Priests were required to keep their entire bodies cleanly shaven. They shaved every third day because they needed to avoid the danger of lice or any other uncleanliness to conduct rituals. This is the reason why priests are illustrated bald-headed with no eyebrows or lashes.

Egyptian priests
New Kingdom priest Osiris priest

In addition, people wore wigs when their natural hair was gone due to old age. However, even though the Egyptians shaved their heads, they did not think the bald look was preferable to having hair.

Female and male wigs
Female wig Male wig

Wigs were very popular and worn by men, women and children.
They were adorned both inside and outside of the house.
Egyptians put on a new wig each day and wigs were greatly varied in styles.
The primary function of the wig was as a headdress for special occasions, such as ceremonies and banquets.

Ramses the GreatWigs were curled or sometimes made with a succession of plaits.
Only queens or noble ladies could wear wigs of long hair separated into three parts, the so-called goddress. However, they were worn by commoners in later times.
During the Old and Middle Kingdoms, there were basically two kinds of wig styles: wigs made of short or long hair.
The former was made of small curls arranged in horizontal lines lapping over each other resembling roof tiles. The forehead was partially visible and the ears and back of the neck were fully covered. Those small curls were either triangular or square. The hair could be cut straight across the forehead or cut rounded.
On the contrary, the hair from a long-haired wig hung down heavily from the top of the head to the shoulders forming a frame for the face. The hair was slightly waved and occasionally tresses were twisted into spirals.